Module Overview

Clinical Sciences Anatomy and Physiology

The aim of this module is to provide a more in-depth and specific knowledge of Anatomy and Physiology of the following body systems: Respiratory, Cardiac, Vascular and Neurological. This will allow a higher level of understanding of these systems in preparation for the clinical setting.

Module Code

BIOL 2805

ECTS Credits


*Curricular information is subject to change

Lectures and laboratory sessions/seminars, student-directed learning, computer based learning.

Respiratory Physiology and Anatomy and Disorders of the Respiratory system:
Thorax, sternum, vertebral column, ribs, clavicle, scapulae, pleural membranes, lung lobes and bronchopulmonary segments. Diaphragm and other muscles of respiration.
Pulmonary circulation, bronchial circulation, autonomic nerve supply, role of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors, autonomic nervous system reflexes.
Development of the Respiratory System: three major stages of foetal lung development, pre and post natal development periods. Role of surfactant.
The following lung diseases will be covered: Alpha-1-antityrpsin deficiency; Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, Extrinsic allergic alveolitis; Kyphoscoliosis; Cystic fibrosis; Bronchiectasis; Primary pulmonary hypertension; Occupational lung disease; Sarcoidosis; Polio.

Neurological Physiology and Anatomy:
Anatomy of the Cranium, Meninges and CNS including brain development, ventricles/circulation of CSF and blood supply to the brain. Gray matter and white matter of the brain and spinal cord. The major corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts. Structure and function of the Cerebral Lobes, Basal Nuclei/ganglia, the Limbic system, the Epithalamus, Thalmus and Hypothalmus, Cerebellum and the Brainstem. The cranial nerves. Neurophysiology of the Visual and auditory pathways. Haemhorragic and ischemic stroke; relating functional loss to brain injury. Sleep.

Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology:
The anatomy and physiology of the Mediastinum, Pericardium and Heart Wall. Major arteries supplying the myocardium and distribution of the blood supply, major vessels of venous drainage. The cardiac cycle and cardiodynamics. Anatomy and function of the components of the specialized conduction system and the heart valves. The role of the conduction system in coordinating the cardiac cycle. The ECG in diagnosis. Baroreceptor reflexes: effects of carotid sinus massage. Alterations in cardiodynamics with structural pathology and physiological variables (Increased metabolism, temperature, extrinsic controllers and blood pressure disturbances).

Vascular Anatomy and Physiology:
Cerebral Arterial System: Subclavian/aortic arch/brachiocephalic; Common carotid; internal carotid & external carotid & their branches; Vertebral and basilar arteries. Intracranial – Circle of Willis Collateral possibilities/anatomic variants.
Central & Peripheral arterial system: Aortic arch; Ascending and descending aorta. Branches of the aorta -Celiac, splenic, hepatic, SMA, Renal, gonadal, mesenteric, iliac. Upper and lower extremity arteries (including hand and foot). Collateral possibilities/anatomic variants.
Arterial physiology and pathophysiology: Vasoactive mediators and their control of the vasculature. Structural changes within the vessel as a result of/cause of disease. Renovascular Hypertension; Arteriovenous fistulae.
Central venous system: Vena Cava and branches; Portal, mesenteric and renal veins. Iliac veins. Collateral possibilities /anatomic variants. Upper and Lower extremity veins: Deep and superficial, origin, termination, venous valves, numbers; Perforators; Venous sinuses. Anatomic variants.
Venous physiology and pathophysiology – effects of respiration, muscle pump action, valves; Valsalva. Venous hypertension. Ulceration. Deep Vein Thrombosis. Varicose veins. Peripheral vascular disease.

Laboratory activity is designed to support lecture content

This module will be delivered over one semester with a total of 45 contact hours. The module will use a mixture of lecture (24h) and practical sessions (21h).

Module Content & Assessment
Assessment Breakdown %
Other Assessment(s)100