Module Overview

Cellular Pathology 1

This module provides an overview of current laboratory investigative methods employed in diseases analysis in Cellular Pathology and Clinical Cytology. The aim is to review current and novel methods of cell and tissue analysis in the investigation of phenotypic and genotypic alterations due to pathological disease conditions. The aim is to provide an overview of cell and tissue sample management, biobanking, processing and analysis for disease investigation using microscopic, histochemical, immunophenotyping and molecular analytical methods.

Module Code

BIOL 4212

ECTS Credits


*Curricular information is subject to change

Indicative syllabus covered in the module and / or in its discrete elements

  • Overview of current and emerging methods of cell phenotyping and genotyping in Cellular Pathology.
  • The role of cell and tissue analysis in disease diagnostics and theranostics.
  • Sample management and handling, biohazards, storage, disposal protocols.
  • Procedures for bio-banking of cells and tissues for research – ethical issues and guidelines.
  • Specimen dissection, tissue preservation and processing, cytocentrifuge, cell blocks and tissue array construction.
  • Procedures for handling and analysis of specialised tissues.
  • Automated cell preparation and digital image analysis systems.
  • Histochemistry in typing of carbohydrate, lipid and protein, pigment and microbe detection in tissue samples.
  • Immunohistochemistry methods – immunoperoxidase, immunoalkaline phosphatase, immunofluorescence methods.
  • Antigen preservation, unmasking and immunohistochemistry validation and quality management.
  • Methods of in situ hybridisation, FISH, CISH, SISH, Chromosomal, Gene-specific, fusion and break-apart probes.
  • DNA and RNA preservation and extraction from tissue samples, Laser Capture Microdissection and Whole Genome Amplification methods.
  • Methods and Applications of PCR and oligonucleotide array-based methods to cell and tissue samples.
  • HPV detection and typing methods.
  • Quality control and validation of cell and tissue analysis including standardising preservation, processing, storage, histochemical, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses and reporting.

Practical programme:

  • Pathology investigation through specimen description and dissection, and optimal selection and processing for cryotomy, microtomy, clinical cytology and biobanking.
  • Optimisation and quality control of methods for morphology, histochemistry and immunostaining.
  • Histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of phenotype.
  • Optimisation of immunostaining - comparison of antigen unmasking and antibody titrations methods.
  • Quality control of microscopic evaluation of cell pathological features, measurement and quantitation of expression of biomarkers.

Lecturers (10 hrs), Tutorials (5 hrs), Laboratory (27)

Module Content & Assessment
Assessment Breakdown %
Other Assessment(s)100