Module Overview

Chemistry 2

The aim of this module is to introduce the student to the fundamentals of organic chemistry.

Module Code

CHEM H1002

ECTS Credits


*Curricular information is subject to change

Introduction to Organic Chemistry:

Chemistry of compounds of carbon – Electronegativity and polarity; bonding (covalent, polar covalent, dative, ionic); geometry – tetrahedral carbon; intermolecular forces (Van der Waals, H-bonding).

Preparation and identification of organic compounds:

Draw and describe the set-up of a chemical reaction at reflux and a distillation; describe purification by distillation and crystallisation; product characterisation by TLC and melting point.


Bonding, IUPAC nomenclature rules, properties, sources, simple reactions - combustion, halogenation


Bonding; sources and properties; IUPAC nomenclature, cis-trans isomers; simple addition reactions and drawing their mechanisms, including intermediates – Markovnikov’s Rule in terms of carbocations; classification and order of stability of carbocations.


IUPAC nomenclature, classification of alcohols - primary/secondary/tertiary; diols and polyols (carbohydrates); Bond polarity, H-bonding, properties and water solubility profiles; simple reactions and their mechanisms.

Aldehydes and Ketones:

Carbonyl group, bonding, polarity; IUPAC and trivial nomenclature; simple reactions to distinguish aldehydes and ketones; drawing mechanisms, using curly arrows, of nucleophilic addition to carbonyl group (hydride, cyanide, etc.) to give tetrahedral intermediates.

Carboxylic acids and derivatives:

IUPAC and trivial nomenclature of carboxylic acids and derivatives; dicarboxylic acids; natural sources; H-bonding and water solubility; resonance stabilisation of carboxylate ion; pKa and derivation of Henderson-Hasselbalch equation for weak acids; importance of pKa in pharmaceuticals and in nature; draw mechanisms of simple reactions showing tetrahedral intermediates; Esters, anhydrides and their reactions, including mechanisms; fatty acids and triglycerides

Amines and amides:

IUPAC and trivial nomenclature; classification of amines; drawing mechanisms of simple reactions; pKa of amines – relevance to pharmaceuticals/biopharmaceuticals; amino acids – names, side-chain properties – hydrophilic, hydrophobic, acidic, basic; pKa of amino acid sidechains.

Aromatic hydrocarbons:

Benzene – structure and bonding, sources; polycyclic aromatics; resonance structures; nomenclature including trivial names; ortho, meta and para isomers; electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) reactions of benzene; drawing mechanisms, using curly arrows, of simple (EAS) reactions.

Module Content & Assessment
Assessment Breakdown %
Other Assessment(s)30
Formal Examination70