This section of the module introduces students to the basic principles of thermodynamics and applies these concepts to various physics systems. The concepts covered include: laws of thermodynamics, entropy, introduction to the statistical basis of thermodynamics, ideal and real gases, phase changes, heat engines and maximum work.
Temperature and temperature scales. Absolute zero. Ideal gas law.
Work in reversible and irreversible systems – first law of thermodynamics and the fundamental thermodynamic relation
Second law and entropy – Clausius inequality, Clausius and Kelvin statements of the second law
Heat engines, engine efficiency. Carnot cycle.
Calculations of entropy change for simple systems.
Introduction to the statistical basis of thermodynamics: macrostates, microstates, statistical weight , Postulate of
Equal a Priori Probabilities, and entropy.
The Joule expansion – ideal gas, virial expansion, van der waals gas
The Joule-Thompson expansion – liquefaction of gases
Available and unavailable energy. Maxwell's relations. Thermodynamic potentials,
Difference in principal specific heat capacities of various substances.
Phase transitions, the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
Thermodynamic applications: Adiabatic demagnetisation, rubber bands, reversible voltaic cells.
Review of properties of matter at low temperatures.
Specific heats of metals. Liquid helium, superfluidity, superconductivity
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