Module Overview

Food & Beverages Engineering

This module specifically provides students with both the theory and application of engineering principles applied in the food and beverage processing industry such as mass and energy balances, thermodynamics, fluid flow, and heat and mass transfer. Most of the topics discuss fundamental engineering concepts and associated examples of problems.

This module aims at providing basic knowledge of food and beverage engineering principles to students, who are planning a career as food and beverage science professionals, with sufficient background in engineering concepts to be comfortable when communicating with engineering professionals.

Module Code

FOOD 2000

ECTS Credits


*Curricular information is subject to change

Introduction to Food and beverage Engineering

Unit and dimensions, conversion of units, density, concentration, moisture content, temperature, pressure, enthalpy, energy, power, area, associated problems. Drawing food engineering process equipment.


Introduction to thermodynamics, zero, first, second and third law of thermodynamics, application of thermodynamics in food industry, system, state of system, properties of system.

Concept of Fluid flow

Liquid transport system, properties of liquid, flow measurement, measurement of viscosity, transport of solid fluid, process control in food processing, sensors, rheology, Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids.

Heat transfer in Food and beverage Processing

Thermal properties of food, mode of heat transfer in food process, conductive heat transfer, Fourier’s law for heat conduction, convective heat transfer, natural and forced convection, Newton’s law of cooling, radiation heat transfer, Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation, steady and unsteady heat transfer and associated calculations, system of heating and cooling food.

Mass transfer in Food and beverage Processing

Introduction to mass transfer, applications of mass transfer, diffusion process, mode of mass transfer, molecular diffusion, convection, Fick’s Law of Diffusion, steady-state diffusion of gases and liquids, linking heat and mass transfer, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, Lewis number, Sherwood number, Reynolds number. Mass transfer associated calculations. Analogy between the transport of energy, mass and momentum.

Material Balance

Law of conservation of mass, making mass balance, total mass balance, component balance, material balances involved in dilutions, concentration and dehydration, associated problems.

Energy Balance

General principle, heat, heat content of food product, enthalpy, specific heat of solids and liquids, enthalpy change in food during freezing, saturated and supersaturated steams, heat balance, and associated problems.

Kinetics of Chemical Reactions in Foods

Theory of chemical reaction in foods, types of reaction, enzymes reactions, reaction orders, zero, first, second and nth order reactions, rate limiting, temperature dependence of reaction rates, determination of reaction kinetic parameters, use of chemical reaction kinetics for thermal process optimisation, associated problems.


Principle of extraction, diffusion, solubility, and equilibrium, types of extraction process, single-stage batch processing, multi-stage cross flow, multistage countercurrent, continuous countercurrent, liquid-liquid extraction, solid-liquid extraction, super critical extraction.

Drying & Psychrometry

Drying, drying process, drying rate curve, calculation of drying times, classification of dryers, freeze drying, properties of dry air, properties of water vapour, properties of air-vapour mixture, Gibb’s Dalton law, dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, specific volume, humidity ratio, psychromatric chart construction, Application of psychromatric chart in complex food process applications.


Solubility, solution, saturated and super saturated solution, crystal, application of crystallization process in food industry, solubility and temperature, solubility curve, primary nucleation, secondary nucleation, crystal growth, crystallization techniques, crystal growth equation, crystallization equipment.


  • Interactive Lectures
  • Multimedia Content
  • Problem-Solving Sessions
  • In-class quizzes, group discussions
  • Self-Directed Learning
Module Content & Assessment
Assessment Breakdown %
Formal Examination70
Other Assessment(s)30