This module deals with the structure and behaviour of water, fats, carbohydrates, proteins, natural pigments & artificial colourants, flavour compounds, additives, and vitamins in foods. The module aims to enable students to discuss the structure and properties of various food constituents. It also develops laboratory skills including detailed documentation of experimental methods, report writing, and analytical calculations
Indicative syllabus covered in the module and / or in its discrete elements Describe the chemical properties and functions of the main food components: Water and water activity in food: Rate of freezing and crystal formation. Stability of frozen foods. Water phase diagram and freeze drying. Methods of reducing water activity. Fat in foods: physical and chemical properties and structure. Oxidation of fats, mechanism and factors affecting rate, preventative measures. Emulsions and emulsifiers, phase stability and role of proteins and polysaccharides. Protein in foods: structure/stability relationship and chemical factors influencing. Main functions and contributions to food. Case studies for meat, flour, cheese. Carbohydrates in foods: types and functions. Inversion of sugars and uses in industry. Maillard chemistry. Natural pigments and artificial food colourants. Classes, structure and stability. Flavour compounds; properties and categories. Food additives; categories and functions. Vitamins; stability, sources, structure.
Develop enhanced laboratory skills to perform high quality food analyses for a range of food constituents A range of experiments to develop good laboratory skills, numeracy, scientific reporting, and use of standard operating procedures. For example- Water analysis by dean-stark, Karl-Fischer, and oven drying (1 session) Fat extraction from chocolate by hydrolysis and soxhlet apparatus (2 sessions) Fat and Total Solids analysis of milk (1 session) Protein analysis of milk by precipitation and Kjeldahl (2 sessions)
Develop enhanced research and scientific writing skills to record and report on food analysis experiments Maintaining a detailed laboratory notebook Compiling a high standard scientific report based on a report template
Delivery by means of lectures with audiovisual aids, in-class activities, computational problems and literature searches. The students will apply many of the principles and techniques in the Food Chemistry practical course. Lectures 24 hours. Laboratory 18 hours (3 x 6 hours)
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